Technologies and Methods within the Scope of the COPA Commission
Online information resources (for parents -- e.g., one-click-away)
- Safety information for kids
- Safety information for parents
- Safety information for teenagers
- Educational programs teaching children (or other users) how to conduct targeted searches on the Internet so as to avoid inadvertent exposure to material that may be harmful to minors
- Educational programs teaching law enforcement officers or investigators how to use existing technology to address threats to children that involve the Internet
Filtering software based on a third party provider's negative list
Filtering software based on a third party provider's positive list
Filtering software based on parental decisions to exclude particular sites
Filtering software based on parental decisions to include particular sites
Filtering software based on parental decisions to disapprove specified correspondents
Filtering software based on parental decisions to approve specified correspondents
Filtering software based on labeling/rating adopted by originating site or correspondent
Filtering software based on third party labeling/rating/rules, with parental choice of source of labels/rating/rules sources
Filtering software based on "pixel recognition" decided to block access to only sexually explicit images
Filtering software that is "rules based" meaning filters pages "on the fly" based on mathematical algorithms applied to the content of the page
Filtering software that blocks only the content on a page that has been designated as harmful to minors by the parent/software developer, meaning other text or images on a page may be viewed
Filtering software based on the software developer's negative site list
Filtering software based on the software developer's positive site list
Filtering software that is client (local computer) based
Filtering software that is server (ISP or through other point of access) based
Filtering software that works on the World Wide Web
Filtering software that works on email
Filtering software that works on chat/IRC
Filtering software that works on Instant Message systems
Filtering software that works on usenet news groups
Filtering software that prevents the user from sharing specific personally identifiable information such as last name, address or telephone number
Monitoring software that reports child's online activities to the parent
Monitoring software that otherwise limits extent of child's online activities
Monitoring software that works on the World Wide Web
Monitoring software that works on email
Monitoring software that works on chat/IRC
Monitoring software that works on Instant Message systems
Monitoring software that works on usenet news groups
Monitoring software that logs a child's online activities
Parental supervision during Internet usage
Age verification at web site based on credit card
Age verification at web site based on relationship established with a third party site
Age verification at web site based on digital certificates issued to users by certificate authorities
Age verification based on contacting user via email or fax
Age verification through web-of-trust methods
Age verification through biometric technology
Establishment of voluntary domain for sites that self-identify as not suitable for children Establishment of voluntary domain for sites that self-identify as suitable for children. (e. g. dotKIDS domain)
Establishment of mandatory domain for content meeting some specified standard (e.g. dotXXX domain)
Establishment of a mandatory domain for content intended by the producer to be for adults only
Browser and Site interaction via P3P or similar electronic negotiation protocol to identify and select only sites meeting some specified legal/community standard or subject to specified jurisdiction
Establishment of closed online services aimed at children, with parental involvement in filtering email and approving child's access
Use of the location field of the DNS to specify the geographic location of an originating server
Voluntary use of a password screen/adult verification identifier for adult content sections of a given web site
Mandatory use of a password screen/adult verification identifier for adult content for sites in certain areas
Limiting access by children to Internet connected computers in public places: like schools, libraries and community centers
Providing adults with access to special, screened, computers in libraries and other public places
Legal/Policy Questions with respect to each technology and method within the Scope of the COPA Commission
Is the technology or method available now?
Is the technology or method offered by a range of competing companies (in a range of products)?
Is the technology or method easy enough for parents to use?
- Are parents aware of the technology or method?
- If they are not, what barriers are preventing them from becoming aware of it?
- If they are, how has the company or program reached parents?
What is the cost to a web or mail server to implement the technology or method?
What is the cost of the technology or method to end users?
What is the cost imposed by use of the technology or method on other, third parties?
Is the technology or method low enough in cost to encourage parental use?
Is the technology or method low enough in cost to encourage use by noncommercial sites and individuals who publish content?
Can the technology be used by those who publish content on servers that they do not configure or control?
Does the technology or method substantially shield minors from harmful materials?
Does the technology or method render inaccessible substantial amounts of material that is not harmful to minors?
Who determines what material is rendered inaccessible? (The company, the parent, a third partyÉ)
Can a parent review the list of sites that are inaccessible?
If the company or a third party determines what material is rendered inaccessible, are the criteria by which the determination is made available for the parent to review?
Can the parent permanently edit (to make accessible) material that has been rendered inaccessible? Can a parent add to a list of material a site that he or she determines should be inaccessible?
Can a parent temporarily override the decision to render material inaccessible by using a password or other technological means?
When a site or other form of content is rendered inaccessible, is the user alerted to the fact that there is material online that has been rendered inaccessible?
Does the technology or method limit access to images as well as to text? (audio?). Consider separately.
Does the technology or method operate in a predictable and transparent way?
Does the technology or method deal with active messages (incoming email, instant messaging and online chat rooms) as well as web surfing?
Does the technology have any other side effects on the development of Internet standards or on the conduct of other activities on the net?
Would widespread use of this technology or method raise significant first amendment issues?
Would mandatory use of this technology or method raise significant first amendment issues?
Would widespread use of this technology or method impair privacy rights?
Would mandatory use of this technology or method impair privacy rights?
Is this technology or method a less restrictive measure that undermines the constitutional validity of laws imposing more restrictive legal obligations?
Would use of this technology or method have any impact (positive or negative) on legitimate law enforcement?
Would it be feasible to enforce a law requiring use of this technology or method by US based actors?
Would enforcement of a law requiring use of this technology or method by US actors have a substantial impact on availability of harmful materials to minors?
Would enforcement of a law requiring use of this technology or method by US actors have an impact on the distribution or geographic location of sites or mail servers making available material that would violate US law?
May the use of the technology or method by a web site or message originator meet the requirements for use as an affirmative defense by a site/actor that makes material harmful to minors available?
Are further steps needed to make clear that the technology or method provides such an affirmative defense?
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